SOCY 101 exam 2 | Spring 2011

If you'll mark your answers on this booklet and keep it, you can learn your score by checking the answer key. Use a pencil to mark your multiple-choice answers on the machine-readable form. Be sure to include your VCU ID (the first nine columns of the "identification" section) and to fill in the circles below both your name and number.

1)   Switzerland is made up of four separate ethnic groups that have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of ________.

A) permissible assimilation

B)  multiculturalism*

C)  cultural adaptation

D) forced assimilation



2)   The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved "separate but equal" accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ________.

A) Africa v. Hewitt

B)  Furman v. Georgia

C)  Plessy v. Ferguson *

D) Garner v. Tennessee


3)   Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?

A) Women are outnumbered by men in virtually every society.

B)  Women are not as physically strong as men.

C)  Men perform the most difficult and dangerous work in most societies.

D) Women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics.*



4)   The United States Census Bureau allows respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be.
a.  true*     b. false


5) Biologists and anthropologists generally agree on a five-member classification system to universally distinguish one race from another. 

                a. true     b. false*


6)   What is another name for multiculturalism?

A) compartmentalization

B)  sublimation

C)  pluralism *

D) assimilation


7)   Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.

A) values; attitudes

B)  norms; beliefs

C)  attitudes; actions *

D) actions; attitudes


8)   Which nations serve as the best examples of democratic socialism?

A) the United States and Great Britain

B)  Denmark and Sweden*

C)  China and Russia

D) Taiwan and Japan

9)   Convergence theory suggests that the two economic systems of capitalism and socialism will grow further and further apart, which will lead to international mistrust and trade wars.

       a. true     b. false*

10) Convergence theory occurs when former capitalist nations adopt features of socialism and former socialist nations adopt features of capitalism, while each transforms into the other. 

a. true     b. false*


11) In a pure socialist economy, members of the central committee, supervisors, and factory workers are all employees of the government.

        a. true*     b. false


12) In the capitalist economy, when the government identifies a firm that has monopolized a product or service, it may order the company to ________, that is, sell off some of its businesses.

A) consolidate

B)  divest *

C)  merge

D) declare bankruptcy


13) In the globalization of capitalism, the dominant European nation is ________. 

A) Germany*

B)  Great Britain

C)  Italy

D) France


14) Economic activities, illegal or legal, that people do not report to the government are sometimes referred to as the ________ economy.

A) transformation

B)  welfare

C)  underground *

D) organic

The process of reducing people to objects that do not deserve to be treated as humans is known as _________?

A) disrespect 

B)  maltreatment

C)  dehumanization*

D) depersonalization


16) Max Weber used the term ________ to refer to the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either a rational-legal authority or traditional authority.

A) routinization of charisma *

B)  passing of the gavel

C)  transfer of power

D) rationalization of leadership


17) During the Middle Ages in Europe, what physical structure dominated the landscape of a city-state?

A) a castle*

B)  a town meeting hall

C)  an amphitheater

D) a courthouse


18) What is another name for rational-legal authority?

A) fascism

B)  totalitarianism

C)  democratic socialism

D) bureaucratic authority*


19) What is another term for power relations wherever they exist? 

A) politics*

B)  government

C)  economics

D) nationalism

20) Vi
olent crime in America is rather consistent from state to state in terms of the number of incidents and ratio of incidents to the state's population.

                a. true     b. false*


21) The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.

A) reimprisonment

B)  recidivism*

C)  three-strike law

D) criminal justice


22) Functionalists would contend that the growing crime rates among women are the result of changing social location and gender roles giving women greater access to illegitimate opportunities.

                a. true*   false


23) According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

A) anomie*

B)  latent dysfunction

C)  mass hysteria

D) retreatism


24)         The early sociologist who argued that deviance might be functional for society was ________.

A) Max Weber

B)  Henri Saint Simon

C)  Emile Durkheim *

D) Karl Marx


25. Deviance is...

a) the violation of norms, rules, and expectations*

b) solely acted out by poor people

c) to act immoral

d) criminal behavior


26. Which of the following is not an example of a negative sanction:

a) a frown

b) a prison sentence

c) an insult

d) a hug*


27. Sociobiology looks at....

a) genetic predispositions and innate tendencies within the individual*
b) the psychology and past experiences of the individual

c) the social location of the individual

d) all of the above


28. Someone who accepts cultural goals, but rejects the institutionalized means of achieving them would be considered Merton's...

a) ritualism

b) retreatism

c) innovation*

d) rebellion


29. Medicalizing deviance helps to...

a) alleviate blame from person committing crime

b) reduce awareness of social issues surrounding deviant behavior

c) create the perception that criminal behavior is a mental sickness

d) all of the above*


30. In Marx’s analysis, who are the “bourgeoisie”?
a. owners*
b. workers
c. managers
d. bureaucrats
e. conservatives


31) ________are often referred to as the "invisible minority."

A) American Indians*

B)  Native Americans

C)  Hispanic Americans

D)  Asian Americans


32. This term is a central component of Marx’s dialectical process.
a. deduction
b. labor theory of value
c. feudal stage
d. synthesis*

33. I suggested that globalization has been good for poor countries. A key reason is that multinational corporations will invest in those countries and in that way bring up their standard of living.
a. true     b. false*

34) People who are prejudiced against one racial or ethnic group tend to be prejudiced against other groups.
a. true*   b. false

)  Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against.
a. true*     b. false

)  Individual discrimination, rather than institutional discrimination, is the reason that minority group members are less likely to be given a mortgage.

a.      true     b. false*


37) The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.
a. true     b. false*


38) Sociologically, females are appropriately classified as a minority group.
a. true *    b. false


39) In hunting and gathering as well as horticultural societies, women contributed the majority of the food supply to their groups.
a. true*     b. false


40) The fact that women are twice as likely to die after coronary bypass surgery can be traced to unintentional sexual discrimination by medical personnel.
a. true *    b. false

41. In the 1648 Peace Treaty of Westphalia, signing nations set rules for international law that held until at least 1945. This treaty declared that ______.
a. every country had sovereignty*
b. international disputes should be decided by the World Court
c. wars should be fought according to internationally agreed-to rules
d. all countries should follow uniform standards for criminal justice

42. France was the first country that tried to follow the ideas that John Locke laid out during the Enlightenment.
a. true     b. false*

43. I noted in the online lecture about the economy that in both traditional and command economies, the coordinating mechanisms are deeply embedded in ______. (Choose the best answer.)
a. psychological characteristics that set the standards for economic behavior
b. international agreements
c. a society’s written laws
d. the cultures of the societies*

44. In his book The Good Society, John Kenneth Galbraith says that history has been a decisive factor in changing the government's role and creating new roles, Galbraith says. Today, not only are most people urban but it is in urban areas that we find the greatest social problems.
a. true*     b. false

45. Before World War Two, the United States' military might in the world can be characterized as ______.
a. fairly weak relative to several other countries
b. as strong as any country’s but not stronger than several
c. stronger than any other country’s*

46. What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?

A)  symbolic interactionism

B)  exchange theory

C)  neo-Marxism

D)  feminism *


47. This writer believed that strong power is necessary in society. (Choose the best answer in light of the class lecture.)
a. John Locke
b. Thomas Hobbes*
c. Prince Kropotkin
d. Milovan Djilas
e. Friedrich Hayek


 48. Today’s inequalities from country to country are less extreme than they were 200 years ago.
a. true     b. false*

49. Thomas Hobbes (Levithan) emphasized the idea of _____ between people and their government.
a. conflict
b. opposing interests
c. checks and balances
d. a social contract*

50. It is clear that Marx knew that competition increased economic efficiency, and his proposals for change took this fact into account.
a. true     b. false*

51. This writer believed/believes that power corrupts. (Choose the best answer in light of the class lecture.)
a. John Kenneth Galbraith
b. Thomas Hobbes
c. Roberto Michels*
d. John Maynard Keynes
e. Robert Heilbroner

52. This analyst wanted to keep the state weak.
a. Thomas Hobbes
b. Friedrich Hayek*
c. John Kenneth Galbraith
d. John Maynard Keynes


53. The view from the political right (neoliberalism) is that justice demands _____.
a. a sharp decline in inequality
b. a stronger legislature
c. a stronger president
d. the maximization of individual freedom

54. Left-oriented parties first came into power _____.
a. in the 18th century
b. in the 19th century
c. in 1917*
d. in the 1950s


55. The concept of "groupthink" was developed to show how totalitarian (authoritarian) leaders are able to extert political power in societies.
a. true     b. false*

56. Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw tell us that "a great deal has changed around the world since the 1970s," and that neoliberalism _____ (The Commanding Heights).
a. has experienced a decline in its former prominence
b. has enjoyed increasing influence and popularity*
c. has experienced a severe crisis of leadership
d. has been struggling to find a coherent approach

57. . Yergin and Stanislaw propose five “tests” of neoliberalism and whether or not it can endure. One of those tests is, “Can the market deliver the goods?”
a. true*    b. false

58. Amartya Sen discusses several kinds of inequality. This type refers to inequality in sex ratios before birth.
a. mortality inequality
b. natality inequality*
c. basic services inequality
d. “high tech” inequality
e. household inequality

59. What is the Grameen Bank?
a. a part of the World Bank that focuses on helping the governments in poor countries
b. a bank that gives small loans to people who have ideas for starting their own businesses*
c. a United Nations bank that supervises the distribution of foreign aid from rich countries to poor ones
d. a bank that funds projects for environmental protection around the world

60. I suggested in class that this country was the world’s first to treat women and men equally in income and other social benefits.
a. the United Kingdom
b. France
c. the United States
d. Germany
e. No country treats women and men equally.*





_____________________________________  ___________________________________

                    Printed name                                                        Signed name